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Fair dealing should be given a 'large and liberal interpretation'


Enumerated headings of fair dealing are an exhaustive list but the factors are not

. 枚举的合理使用的标题已完全列明,但要素未列明

Fair dealing should be given a 'large and liberal interpretation' (CCH para 51)

合理使用应作“广义和开放的解释”(CCH第51段)

Similar to the Article 22 provisions in Chinese law but less specifically defined

与中国法第22条的条款内容相似,但定义较笼统
26
Fair Dealing 合理使用
Courts have adopted a two step test for analyzing fair dealing claims where a defendant must prove that:
法院已通过了一种两步测试来分析合理使用的主张,被告必须证明:
1.
the dealing was for one of the enumerated purposes
1、使用是出于以下目的
2、it was fair. (CCH, para 50)
2、使用是合理的。(CCH,第50段)

The first stage is easy to overcome and just requires that the use fit into the categories that are enumerated in the act.

第一步是容易完成的,只要要求使用符合法律中枚举的类别要求即可

For step 2, determination of fairness, courts have adopted a six factor test, somewhat similar to one used in American Jurisprudence

第二步,合理的确定,法院已通过一种六要素测试,类似于美国法理学中使用的方法
27
Six Fairness Factors 六个合理要素
1.
Purpose of the Dealing
1. 使用的目的
2.Character of the dealing
2. 使用的特性
3. Amount of the Dealing
3. 使用的数量
4.Alternatives to the dealing
4. 使用的备选
5. Nature of the work
5. 作品的属性
6. Affect of the dealing on the work
6. 使用作品的影响

These are more or less six factors; none of these factors should be taken as determinative but rather weighed in the context of the facts

这就是所谓的六个要素;这些要素都不应被认为是决定性的,但应结合事实进行衡量
28
Purpose and Character 目的和特性
(1) Purpose: the purpose of the dealing will be fair if it is for one of the allowable purposes under the Copyright Act... courts should attempt to make an objective assessment of the user/defendant’s real purpose or motive in using the copyrighted work. (CCH, para 54)
(1)目的:如果符合著作权法许可的目的,使用的目的就是合理的...法院应对使用者/被告使用享有著作权作品的真实目的或动机作出客观评价。(CCH案,第54段)
(2) Character: courts must examine how the works were dealt with. If multiple copies of works are being widely distributed, this will tend to be unfair. If, however, a single copy of a work is used for a specific legitimate purpose, then it may be easier to conclude that it was a fair dealing. (CCH, para 56)
(2)特性:法院必须审查使用作品的方式。如果作品的大量复制件被广泛传播,这就是不合理的。但,如果作品的单一复制件被用于特定的合法目的,那么这就可能更容易认定为合理使用。(CCH案,第56段)
29
Amount and Alternatives 数量和替代
(3) Amount: Both the amount of the dealing and importance of the work allegedly infringed should be considered in assessing fairness. If the amount taken from a work is trivial, the fair dealing analysis need not be undertaken at all because the court will have concluded that there was no copyright infringement. (CCH, para 56)
(3)数量:在评价合理性时应考虑使用的数量和被侵权作品的重要性。如果使用作品的数量是微不足道的,合理使用的分析就不需要了,这是因为法院将会认定不存在著作权侵权。(CCH案,第56段)
(4) Alternatives to the dealing: Alternatives to dealing with the infringed work may affect the determination of fairness. If there is a non-copyrighted equivalent of the work that could have been used instead of the copyrighted work, this should be considered by the court.(CCH, para 57)
(4)使用的替代:使用被侵权作品的替代可能会影响合理性的认定。如果存在具有同等效果的非著作权作品可以替换著作权作品,法院应对此予以考虑。(CCH,第57段)
30
Nature and Effect on work属性和对作品的影响
(5) Nature: if a work has not been published, the dealing may be more fair in that its reproduction with acknowledgement could lead to a wider public dissemination of the work. If, however, the work in question was confidential, this may tip the scales towards finding that the dealing was unfair. (CCH, para 58)
(5)属性:如果作品尚未发表,且其获得认可的复制可能会导致作品在更广泛的公众中传播,使用可能会更加合理。但,如果争议作品是保密的,这可能会导致认定使用是不合理的。(CCH案,第58段)
(6) Effect on work: If the reproduced work is likely to compete with the market of the original work, this may suggest that the dealing is not fair. Although the effect of the dealing on the market of the copyright owner is an important factor, it is neither the only factor nor the most important factor that a court must consider (CCH, para 59)
(6)对作品的影响:如果被复制的作品有可能与市场上的原作竞争,这可能会表明使用是不合理的。尽管使用对著作权所有者的市场的影响是一个重要因素,但这不是法院必须考虑的唯一因素也不是最重要的因素(CCH案,第59段)
31
Case Study: Alberta v. Access Copyright 案例研究:阿尔贝塔诉著作权许可代理
Alberta (Education) v Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency (Access Copyright), 2012 SCC 37
阿尔贝塔(教育)诉加拿大著作权许可代理(许可代理),案号2012SCC37

Facts: Teachers were photocopying material from books for use by students in the classroom.

案情:教师复印书本供学生上课使用。

Issue: Was this use by teachers fair dealing under the purpose of private study

争议焦点:教师的合理使用是否是出于私人研究的目的?

Ratio: Teachers' use was considered fair dealing under private study

比例:教师的适用被认定为出于私人研究目的的合理使用

Analysis: Fair dealing is a user's right and each of the headings should be given a 'large and liberal interpretation'. Though the teachers were not conducting private study for themselves but facilitating student's private study this was acceptable.

分析:合理使用是使用者的权利,每个标题应作“广义和开放的解释”。尽管教师未进行私人学习,但方便了学生的私人学习,因此是可以接受的。

Question: Should exceptions to copyright be liberally construed or strictly applied based on the legislation

问题:著作权的特例应作广义解释还是根据立法作狭义解释?

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