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Copyright Protects the expression of the ideas

Substantial Part Considerations:
实质部分主要考虑:
1.how central was the element taken to the first work
1、该要素是否在原作占据核心位置?
2. do the selected parts constitute an essential characteristic of the work
2. 所选的部分是否构成作品的基本特征?
3. would people who see the copy recognize the source
3. 看到该版本的人员是否会发觉其来源?
4. was the part taken used in a manner that would create a substitute to the first work and thereby jeopardize its economic exploitation
4.该部分是否以替代原作并由此影响其经济开发的形式使用?
Abstract-Filtration Test 抽象-过滤测试
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Copyright Protects the expression of the ideas, not the ideas themselves
著作权保护理念的表达而不保护理念本身
To Determine this courts use the Abstract Filtration Test:
为了确定这一点,法院采用了抽象-过滤测试:
(1)
what elements are original, within the Copyright Act;
(1)在著作权法中,什么要素是原创的;
(2) exclude non-protectable features ...
(2)排除非可保护特性
(3)compare what remains ...after this “weeding-out”... and determine whether a substantial part...was reproduced. (Cinar, para 34)
(3)比较剩余的内容...在“清理”后...并确定是否是实质部分...被复制。(西纳案,第34段)
(4)“The character of the works will be looked at, and the court will in all cases look, not at isolated passages, but at the two works as a whole to see whether the use by the defendant has unduly interfered with the plaintiff’s right” (Cinar, para 35).
(4)“作品的特性将受到关注,并且法院将在所有案件中关注,不是单独的段落,而是两个作品的整体,来看被告的使用是否不正当地妨碍原告的权利”(西纳案,第35段)。
Indirect Infringement 间接侵权

There are two types of Indirect infringement: authorizing infringement and secondary infringement.

存在两种类型的间接侵权:授权侵权和次要侵权

Indirect infringement does not involve a direct violation of the protected rights but rather, the enabling or benefiting from primary infringement.

间接侵权不涉及对受保护权利的直接侵犯,但涉及促使或从主要侵权中获益。

Example: a bootleg DVD seller, to an internet service provider or website that provides access to torrents.

举例:盗版DVD卖方,向互联网服务供应商或网站提供下载。
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Authorizing Infringement 授权侵权
18
3(1) "and to authorize any such acts"
3(1)“以及授权此类行为”

The copyright holders' right to authorize reproduction, performance and publication of their works comes from this wording in section 3(1) and the wording of section 27(1) in that

著作权人授权复制、表演和发表其作品的权利源于第3(1)条和第27(1)条的规定

Authorization : “sanction, approve, countenance.” (CCH, para 38)

Liability of an authorizer is the same as liability of a primary infringer.

授权:“认可、批准、赞同。”(CCH,第38段)

A person does not authorize infringement by authorizing the mere use of equipment that could be used to infringe copyright. Courts should presume that a person who authorizes an activity does so only so far as it is in accordance with the law. (CCH, para 38)

一个人通过授权使用可能被用于侵犯知识产权的设备不算授权侵权。法院应当假定,只要是依据法律,授权人就可以这样做。(CCH,第38段)
Case Study: CCH v. LSUC案例研究:CCH诉LSUC
CCH Canadian Limited v. Law Society of Upper Canada [2004] 1 SCR 339, 2004 SCC 13
CCH加拿大有限公司诉上加拿大律师协会,案号[2004] 1 SCR 339, 2004 SCC 13

Facts: Library had photocopiers available for patrons to use.

案情:图书馆向客户提供影印件使用。

Issue: Does having the photocopiers available to library patrons constitute authorizing infringement

争议焦点:图书馆客户使用的影印件是否构成授权侵权?

Ratio: Authorizing requires the party to 'sanction, approve and countenance behaviour.'

比例:授权需要该方“认可、批准、赞同”。

Analysis: Courts must presume that if there is a valid legal use that patrons are using it for this valid purpose. Library did not sanction the activity of patrons just merely facilitated the ability to lawfully photocopy.

分析:法院必须确定客户是否以合法的目的合法有效地使用材料。图书馆并未认可客户的行为而仅仅是方便其合法地影印。
Question: Should providing a means of infringement create liability
问题:提供侵权的手段是否应承担责任?

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