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Copyright Protects the expression of the ideas

Substantial Part Considerations:
1.how central was the element taken to the first work
2. do the selected parts constitute an essential characteristic of the work
2. 所选的部分是否构成作品的基本特征?
3. would people who see the copy recognize the source
3. 看到该版本的人员是否会发觉其来源?
4. was the part taken used in a manner that would create a substitute to the first work and thereby jeopardize its economic exploitation
Abstract-Filtration Test 抽象-过滤测试
Copyright Protects the expression of the ideas, not the ideas themselves
To Determine this courts use the Abstract Filtration Test:
what elements are original, within the Copyright Act;
(2) exclude non-protectable features ...
(3)compare what remains ...after this “weeding-out”... and determine whether a substantial part...was reproduced. (Cinar, para 34)
(4)“The character of the works will be looked at, and the court will in all cases look, not at isolated passages, but at the two works as a whole to see whether the use by the defendant has unduly interfered with the plaintiff’s right” (Cinar, para 35).
Indirect Infringement 间接侵权

There are two types of Indirect infringement: authorizing infringement and secondary infringement.


Indirect infringement does not involve a direct violation of the protected rights but rather, the enabling or benefiting from primary infringement.


Example: a bootleg DVD seller, to an internet service provider or website that provides access to torrents.

Authorizing Infringement 授权侵权
3(1) "and to authorize any such acts"

The copyright holders' right to authorize reproduction, performance and publication of their works comes from this wording in section 3(1) and the wording of section 27(1) in that


Authorization : “sanction, approve, countenance.” (CCH, para 38)

Liability of an authorizer is the same as liability of a primary infringer.


A person does not authorize infringement by authorizing the mere use of equipment that could be used to infringe copyright. Courts should presume that a person who authorizes an activity does so only so far as it is in accordance with the law. (CCH, para 38)

Case Study: CCH v. LSUC案例研究:CCH诉LSUC
CCH Canadian Limited v. Law Society of Upper Canada [2004] 1 SCR 339, 2004 SCC 13
CCH加拿大有限公司诉上加拿大律师协会,案号[2004] 1 SCR 339, 2004 SCC 13

Facts: Library had photocopiers available for patrons to use.


Issue: Does having the photocopiers available to library patrons constitute authorizing infringement


Ratio: Authorizing requires the party to 'sanction, approve and countenance behaviour.'


Analysis: Courts must presume that if there is a valid legal use that patrons are using it for this valid purpose. Library did not sanction the activity of patrons just merely facilitated the ability to lawfully photocopy.

Question: Should providing a means of infringement create liability

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